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Pamela Clark

Pamela Clark, CRNI, is an infusion nurse with the Houston Methodist Sugar Land Hospital.  She has more than 35 years of experience in infusion therapy and infusion education with both licensed nurses and patients. Her experience spans multiple infusion settings including: acute care, long-term care, home infusion, and ambulatory infusion care. She also has experience in oncology and oncology research.


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Class Accreditation
Provider approved by the Arkansas Board of Nursing, CE Broker Tracking # 20-746184, for 17.00 contact hours. CE Provider #: 50-13256.
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Arkansas IV Therapy Education

Contact Hours: 17
Cost: $170.00
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Arkansas IV Therapy Education

The Arkansas IV Therapy Education curriculum has been designed to fulfill the Arkansas Board of Nursing’s minimal education components required for the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) and Licensed Psychiatric Technician Nursing (LPTN) to practice infusion therapy. The Arkansas Board of Nursing has delineated specific content to be included in the LPN/LPNT infusion curriculum and specifics may be viewed in the Guidelines for Teaching Content Related to IV Therapy for Arkansas Licensed Practical Nurses and Licensed Practical Nursing Students by clicking the link. This comprehensive 17 hour online education program meets the Arkansas Board of Nursing IV Therapy requirements for LPN’s, as well as, provides an excellent refresher course for the Registered Nurse or as a primer for new RN’s. 

In early 2016, the Infusion Nurses Society (INS), recognized as the global authority in infusion therapy, released the updated Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice. The INS sets the accepted standards for infusion therapy practice for all healthcare settings. This course is based on the current best practices as defined by the Infusion Nursing Society and other governing agencies such as the CDC, and FDA.

This 17 hour online continuing education provides a low stress, convenient method of obtaining quality infusion education incorporating various educational techniques designed for the adult learner. The program is comprised of the 17 hour didactic portion completed on your time schedule. Upon successful completion of the course exam, with a score of 80% or greater, the student may instantly print a “Certificate of Completion” for the didactic portion of the course. Within the course content, Pedagogy Inc. provides a complete set of skills competency checklists for completion by a preceptor or employer to complete the hands on skill demonstrations. 




Objectives


Objectives for Section 1: Peripheral IV Therapy

Upon completion of this curriculum, the participant will be able to:

  • List specific measures that will protect against malpractice
  • Identify infusion related complications, causes and appropriate treatment
  • Demonstrate the correct calculation of an IV flow rate
  • Identify methods of infection control related to IV therapy
  • List the components of accurate and complete documentation of IV procedures and complications
  • Demonstrate IV and Infusion related procedures  

Objectives for Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices (CVAD)

Upon completion of this curriculum, the participant will be able to:

  • Describe protective measures to guard against malpractice suits.
  • List 3 reasons for use and advantages of central lines.
  • List 4 veins used for central venous device placement and proper tip position.
  • Identify the various types of central lines.
  • Identify symptoms and prevention of complications.
  • Describe assessment criteria and documentation required for patients with central venous catheters.

Objectives for Section 3: Transfusion Therapies

Upon completion of this curriculum, the participant will be able to:

  • Explain the blood grouping systems and their importance in transfusion therapy.
  • List available blood components and indications for each.
  • Describe the activities required in preparation for a transfusion.
  • Identify equipment used to administer a transfusion and it’s proper usage.
  • Describe the nursing management of a blood component infusion.
  • Describe signs and symptoms of transfusion reactions, and appropriate interventions for each.
  • Explain appropriate patient education related to transfusion therapy.
  • Identify the required documentation for a blood transfusion.

Curriculum


Section One: Peripheral IV Therapy

This section of the Arkansas I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide basic conceptual and operational knowledge to healthcare clinicians who have had limited exposure to infusion therapy principals and practice.  As the science of infusion therapy advances and technology expands, it is imperative that all healthcare clinicians and nurses practicing infusion therapy remain current in their knowledge of infusion therapies, principles, techniques, equipment and the latest in infusion evidence based practices. 

Chapter 1: Legal Issues

  • Regulatory Agencies and Governing Bodies 
  • Components of a Complete Physicians Order 
  • Legal Terms and Applications in Nursing
  • Protective Measures for Guarding against Malpractice Lawsuits

Chapter 2: Anatomy and Physiology

  • The Vascular System: Veins, Arteries and Bone Marrow 
  • The Three Layers of the Vessels and Their Function 
  • Differentiating Arteries from Veins
  • Veins used in Peripheral Intravenous Therapy for Pediatrics and Adults
  • Intraosseous
  • Skin: Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 3:  Psychological Needs of the IV Patient

  • Age Specific Needs of Children
  • Elderly Patient Needs 
  • Cultural Aspects
  • Patients with Sensory Deficits 
  • Methods of Reducing Patient Anxiety 
  • Patient Teaching/Education

Chapter 4: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  • Water: The Primary Fluid of the Body
  • Hypovolemia—Dehydration: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
  • Hypervolemia—Fluid Overload: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
  • Fluid Compartments
  • Electrolyte Imbalances: Assessment, Causes, Treatments

Chapter 5: pH, Osmolality and Incompatibilities of Solutions and Medications

  • pH of Intravenous Solutions and Medications
  • Tonicity: Isotonic solutions, Hypotonic solutions and Hypertonic Solutions Incompatibilities

Chapter 6: Fluid Regulation

  • Methods of Fluid Regulation
  • Patient Considerations in Fluid Regulation
  • External Factors that Affect the Rate of Flow 
  • Calculation of IV flow rates

Chapter 7: Infection Prevention and Safety Compliance

  • Hand Hygiene
  • Sharps Management
  • Medical Waste Disposal
  • Durable Medical Equipment Disinfection
  • Standard Precautions
  • Transmission-Based Precautions

Chapter 8: Vascular Visualization

  • Trans-illuminator Technology
  • Near Infrared Technology
  • Ultrasound

Chapter 9: Site Selection and Device Placement

  • Criteria For Peripheral Devices
  • 3 Types Of Peripheral Access And Criteria For Placement
  • Special Considerations Of The Specific Age Groups
  • General Considerations Of Short Peripheral Access 
  • Veins To Avoid

Chapter 10:  Vascular Access Device Management

  • Needleless Connectors
  • Filtration
  • Add-on Devices
  • VAD Stabilization
  • Joint Stabilization
  • Site Protection
  • Flushing and Locking
  • Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
  • Administration Set Changes
Chapter 11: Peripheral Complications Local Complications 
  • Hematoma
  • Infiltration
  • Extravasation
  • Phlebitis
  • Site Infection
  • Catheter Occlusion
  • MARSI
  • Nerves—Avoiding Damage
  • Compartment Syndrome
Systemic Complications
  • Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection (CRBSI) -  Septecemia
  • Allergic Reaction
  • Air Embolism
  • Peripheral Catheter Embolism
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Speed Shock

Chapter 12: Procedures Guides and Videos

  • Pre-insertion Procedures
  • Peripheral IV Insertion
  • Primary and Secondary Administration set-up
  • IV Push Administration
  • Catheter Discontinuation

Chapter 13: Assessment and Documentation

  • Catheter Insertion Documentation 
  • Catheter Removal Documentation
  • Assessment, Monitoring and Documentation by Therapy

Chapter 14: Resources

  • Skill Competency Checklists


Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices

This section of the Arkansas I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to the licensed nurse responsible for the care of patients with central venous access devices. Ever changing technologies and the evolution of the licensed nurse’s role in the management of central lines requires up to date knowledge of changes in techniques, equipment and devices in use today.

Chapter 15: Central Venous Access Device Review

  • Definition of a Central Line
  • Reasons for use of a central line
  • Advantages of a central line
  • Overview of Central Venous Access Devices
  • Lumens
  • Non‐valved and valved catheters
  • Non‐tunneled catheters
  • Tunneled catheters
  • Implanted ports
  • PICC or Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter

Chapter 16: CVAD Anatomy

  • Veins used for placement of central venous access devices
  • Catheter tip placement

Chapter 17: Assessment and Preparations for Central Venous Catheterization

  • Considerations for selection of the device
  • Preparations for central venous catheterization

Chapter 18: CVAD Management

  • Needleless Connectors
  • Filtration
  • Add-On Devices
  • CVAD Stabilization
  • Site Protection
  • Flushing and Locking
  • Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
  • Administration Set Changes
  • Blood Sampling from a CVAD

Chapter 19: CVAD Procedure Guides and Videos

  • Central venous catheter dressing change
  • Needleless access device change
  • Central venous catheter flushing
  • Blood Sampling from a CVAD

Chapter 20: CVAD Complications

  • Catheter related complications
  • Systemic complications
  • Insertion related complications

Chapter 21: CVAD-Discontinuation of Therapy

  • Removal of devices
  • Central venous access device removal procedure

Chapter 22: Assessment and Documentation and Patient Education

  • Documentation of insertions, removal, infiltration or extravasations
  • Assessment, monitoring, documentation by type of therapy

Chapter 23: CVAD Resources

  • Skill Competency Checklists


Section 3: Transfusion Therapy

This section of the Arkansas I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide clinicians caring for the adult patient receiving transfusion therapy. There are various blood components infused for very specific purposes, and each component requires knowledge related to that specific product. This specialized type of therapy requires advanced clinical knowledge beyond that required for the provision of general infusion therapy. Therefore, education related specifically to the administration of blood products is crucial to the safe and effective use of these components. This section will provide information necessary for administering these life saving infusions.

Chapter 24: Introduction to Transfusion Therapy

  • Blood Components
  • ABO Blood Group System
  • Rh Blood Group System
  • Other Blood Group Antigens
  • HLA System

Chapter 25: Whole Blood

  • Description
  • Indications

Chapter 26: Packed Red Blood Cells

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing
  • Red Blood Cell Subsets

Chapter 27: Platelets

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing
  • Platelet Subsets

Chapter 28: Plasma

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing

Chapter 29: Granulocytes

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing

Chapter 30: Clotting Factors

  • Cryoprecipitate
  • Factor Concentrates

Chapter 31: Pre-transfusion Activities

  • Licensed Independent Prescriber Order
  • Patient Consent
  • Type and Crossmatch
  • Vascular Access
  • Baseline Vital Signs

Chapter 32: Transfusion Administration

  • Component Transport and Storage
  • Equipment
  • Pre-medication
  • Identification
  • Administration
  • Monitoring
  • Patient Education
  • Documentation

Chapter 33: Complications

  • Immune Complications
  • Hemolytic Reactions
  • Non-Hemolytic Reactions
  • Non-immune Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Transfusion Associated Fluid Overload (TACO)
  • Complications of Massive Transfusion
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